Your dog can choke on an almond. They utilize their teeth primarily for tearing and crushing, not chewing. Their saliva will not break down the tough almonds so they can get become lodged in its esophagus.
Almonds have a high phosphorus content. Your dog is more likely to develop bladder or kidney stones if their body has an abundance of phosphorus. Dogs suffer excruciating agony when they get urinary tract or kidney stones.