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Evidence For World’s Oldest Fossilized Forest Discovered in New York

Archaeopteris hibernica
Archaeopteris hibernica. Ghedo, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The recent discovery of the world’s oldest fossilized forest in the United States has sparked immense interest and excitement within the scientific community and beyond. This remarkable discovery, which pushes the boundaries of our understanding of the Earth’s primordial landscapes, was made in a region of upstate New York, known for its rich paleontological history.


Archaeopteris – an ancient tree specimen. Ghedo, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

A research team from Binghamton University (USA) and Cardiff University (Wales) have discovered the world’s oldest forest in a deserted quarry near Cairo, New York. This ancient forest was already known to scientists, but it had never been thoroughly investigated until now.

Initial Discovery & Mapping

Paleontologists working in Fayette Town Quarry in New York state. Stratigraphically, the rocks are Middle Devonian. Penny Higgins (paleololigo on Flickr), CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The site was first uncovered in 2009 by paleobotanists when an ancient plant’s root system was found in 386-million-year-old rocks in a quarry. Cartography for the region started in 2019, but only this year has the forest been named as the most ancient in the world.

A Leap Back in Time: 385 Million Years

​Central Catskills from Twin south summit, New York. English Wikipedia user Daniel Case, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The forest, estimated to be over 385 million years old, predates the previously known oldest forest by nearly two to three million years. This groundbreaking find significantly alters our perception of the timeline of terrestrial plant evolution and sheds new light on the transition of life from water to land.

The Area

A sign for the town of Cairo on NY-23 in Cairo, New York. Tyler A. McNeil, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The team believes the forest once covered an area of approximately 400 kilometers, or about 250 miles. Their investigation has provided new insights into the ages of the plants and trees that grew in this prehistoric forest.

An Ancient World Revealed

Archaeopteris hibernica
Archaeopteris hibernica. Ghedo, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The forest provided evidence of very early plants, some of which would have coexisted with dinosaurs. Christopher Berry, a paleobotanist from Cardiff University, described the remarkable experience of exploring the site: “You are walking through the roots of ancient trees. Standing on the quarry surface we can reconstruct the living forest around us in our imagination.”

Intricate Details

Cladoxylopsid bark. Fossils of the Milwaukee Formation: A Diverse Middle Devonian Biota from Wisconsin, USA. Kennethgass, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

What makes this discovery particularly fascinating is the intricate details preserved in the fossilized remains. The site contains an extensive network of roots, which are believed to belong to ancient tree species like the cladoxylopsids and archaeopteris. These ancient trees were vastly different from modern trees, lacking leaves and branches that we commonly associate with contemporary flora. Instead, they had frond-like structures and were likely pivotal in shaping the planet’s early terrestrial ecosystems.

Climatic and Ecological Shifts

Devonian rocks in a quarry in Seneca Falls in New York state. Penny Higgins (paleololigo on Flickr), CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The discovery of the world’s oldest forest in the US provides crucial insights into the Devonian period, a time when the Earth experienced significant climatic and ecological changes. During this era, the colonization of land by plants led to a dramatic decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, which consequently cooled the planet and may have led to one of Earth’s first major ice ages. This ancient forest offers a unique window into these transformative environmental shifts.

Complex Root Systems

These are branches from an extinct group of vascular plants, the aneurophytalean progymnosperms. Progymnosperms have characteristics of seed plants and characteristics of ferns. James St. John, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The roots system found at the site is particularly noteworthy. These roots are more complex than those of the previously oldest known forests, indicating a rapid advancement in plant evolution. This complexity suggests that plants were adapting quickly to terrestrial conditions, developing new strategies for anchoring themselves and accessing water and nutrients from the soil.

Ecological Dynamics: A Glimpse into Ancient Biodiversity

Sterile specimen of Archaeopteris macilenta from Late Devonian Hancock New York. Retallack, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Additionally, the forest’s layout provides a glimpse into the ecological dynamics of the time. The arrangement of trees and the diversity of species indicate a surprisingly complex forest ecosystem, challenging previous notions that early forests were simplistic and homogenous.

Implications for Climate Science

Table Mountain, the 10th highest peak in New York’s Catskill Mountains at 3,847 ft (1,173 m) above sea level, as seen from the Curtis-Ormsbee Trail. Daniel Case, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

This discovery also has implications for our understanding of carbon sequestration in ancient times. The dense vegetation of such forests played a crucial role in extracting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, a process that is critical to understanding past and present climate change dynamics.

Wrapping Up

Archaeopteris sp. reconstruction. MUSE, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

In conclusion, the unearthing of the world’s oldest forest in the US is a monumental event in the field of paleobotany. It not only reshapes our understanding of early terrestrial ecosystems and plant evolution but also provides valuable insights into the climatic shifts of Earth’s distant past. As research continues, this ancient forest is sure to offer more secrets about our planet’s formative years, enhancing our comprehension of the complex interplay between life and the environment over geological time scales.


View on the Catskill Early Autumn, 1837, Thomas Cole. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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