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Crabs Invading Canada’s Pacific Coast

European green crab

In the pristine archipelago of Haida Gwaii, where thousands of orange-billed oystercatchers once filled the air with their trilling, an unsettling change is underway, invaded by crabs. This remote region off Canada’s Pacific coast, home to the Indigenous Haida people, is under siege by a relentless invasion – not of armies, but of invasive species. In a dramatic echo of their own history, where external forces once made the Haida vulnerable, they now fight to protect their unique wildlife and way of life.

A Shattered Ecosystem

The Haida Gwaii archipelago, often referred to as the “Islands of the People” in the Haida language, is home to 150 islands. These islands are a testament to natural beauty and biodiversity, featuring the largest black bears on the planet, diverse subspecies of bats, ermine, and otters.

However, this delicate ecosystem is under attack. Invasive species, including rats, European green crabs, and blacktail deer, are infiltrating the islands, disrupting the natural balance.


Rats, the Silent Invaders

During a routine egg-counting mission, researchers stumbled upon a rat’s nest nestled amongst the rocks. This discovery foreshadowed the devastation these rodents would wreak on bird populations. Millions of birds have fallen victim to rats’ insatiable appetite for eggs and chicks. On Lyell Island, the population of ancient murrelets, once numbering 30,000 pairs, has dwindled to a mere handful.

The Invasion of European Green Crabs


The invasive European green crab, introduced to California over three decades ago, has been on the move, devastating clams and eelgrass ecosystems that are vital to young fish. In 2020, they made their unwelcome appearance in Haida Gwaii. The speed of their takeover is staggering, with over 200,000 crabs trapped this year alone.

Blacktail Deer: An Unwelcome Legacy

Introduced to Haida Gwaii by European settlers in 1878, blacktail deer are now numerous, numbering nearly 200,000. With no natural predators to keep their population in check, these deer overgraze the land, threatening medicinal plants and preventing the growth of western red cedar saplings, known as the “tree of life” in Haida culture.

Battling the Invaders

A Fierce Struggle

Local Haida people have launched an all-out war against the invaders. Contracts to cull crabs have been issued, with the captured crustaceans turned into fertilizers. However, despite their best efforts, the battle feels underfunded and possibly too late.

Echoes of Vulnerability

The fight against invasive species mirrors the historical vulnerability of the Haida people to external forces. Smallpox outbreaks in the 18th century decimated their population from about 30,000 to fewer than 600. Over generations, the land and waterways have been ravaged by colonization through logging, mining, fishing, and whaling.

A Unique Ecosystem in Peril

The complex impact of invasive species on Haida Gwaii’s ecosystem is evident. Tourists are drawn by the illusion of lush forests covered in thick green mosses. However, beneath the surface, the understory has disappeared, creating barren wastelands.


Haida Gwaii, a paradise where once the sky turned black with the return of ancient murrelets, now grapples with the invasion of crabs, rats, and deer. The battle to protect this unique ecosystem reflects the Haida people’s resilience and determination, even as they continue to heal from the wounds of history. As they work tirelessly to safeguard their land, it’s a stark reminder that the fight for balance in nature is a global concern, costing billions and raising questions about how ecosystems can adapt over generations. The islands of Haida Gwaii stand as a testament to the beauty of a world still untouched by the hand of man. The battle against invasive species is a race against time to ensure that future generations can witness and cherish this natural wonder.

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